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穿这条裤子会不会让我显胖?
日期:2019/06/27 阅读:36次

Do these pants make me look fat?

穿这条裤子会不会让我显胖?

Obviously, there is never a rightanswer.  It tends to get me in troubleeven if I do answer.

很明显,这个问题不会有正确答案。就算我回答了也会惹上麻烦。

What is the proper Backfat for a sow?  This is one of my most frequent askedquestions.  Fifteen years ago, I had theopportunity to work on a 3-year project studying this question.  I have always been reluctant to answer thisquestion because in general a sow can perform normally with a large range ofbackfat as this project had found out. In differing levels of backfat she will require differing levels ofmanagement.  Fifteen years later the sowis now weaning what we had at that time as total born.  This has made the question of backfat in sowsmore acute today.  You can never be rightin answering this question, but you can see certain levels that are moremanageable.

母猪理想的背膘应该是多少?这是人们向我咨询最多的问题之一。十五年前我恰好在一个为期3年的项目中工作,专门研究了这一问题。正如该项目研究结果所示,一般来说,一头母猪的背膘往往涵盖较大范围,因此我并不是很愿意回答这一问题。在不同的背膘水平上,母猪需要不同层级的管理。15年后,目前这些母猪断奶数已经达到了当年的总产仔数之多。这就使得当今母猪背膘问题更加严峻。尽管这一问题永远没有正确答案,但的确可以在一定程度上加强把控。

Generally, sows perform poorly when backfatis taken to extremes.  Sows that are toolean have fertility problems related to metabolizing muscle instead of fatduring the last 3 weeks of gestation when fetus growth is the greatest andduring lactation where the demand for protein (milk) is very great.    Overly fat sows tend not to eat duringlactationand milk offtheir backs (fat reserves). This resulted in excess weight loss, poor subsequent litter size andlong wean to service interval.  Sows thatgain and lose excess of weight during the sow interval will also have a shorterlife span in the herd.  Too skinny sowsmay just not breed back.

一般来说,如果背膘到达某个极端,母猪的表现往往会比较差。太瘦的母猪在怀孕的最后三周所遇到的生育问题往往与肌肉代谢相关,而不是脂肪,而此时的胎儿生长程度达到最大,而在哺乳期间亦是如此,此时蛋白质(满足产奶所需)需求非常高。整体较胖的母猪在哺乳期往往吃得较少,而依靠消耗背膘(脂肪储备)来哺乳。这就会造成失重过度、后续窝产仔数较低以及断奶到配种间隔延长。如果母猪在生产间隔期间增重及失重过度,其在猪群中的寿命也往往较短。太瘦的母猪可能无法再次配种。

So, whatis the right level of backfat?  The rightlevel of backfat is where the sow performs normally without excess loss ofweight during lactation, weans a good litter, breeds back well and stays in theherd for a long time, with the minimum amount of management. 

那么背膘的理想水平是多少呢?在理想的背膘水平下,母猪表现较为正常,在哺乳期间不会损失过多体重,断奶数量较多,配种表现良好而且可以在猪群中生存较长时间,与此同时对管理的需求最低。

Backfat is more important in the first 2parities than it is in older sows that have a greater feed intake and largerbody mass to draw from.  Therefore, Iwill focus on the gilt and its development as a best practice.

比起大龄母猪,背膘对于头两胎的母猪来说更为重要,要知道大龄母猪采食量更大,而消耗的体重也更大。因此我会重点关注后备猪及其发育,这是绝佳的切入点。

Maternal gilts should follow a strictgenetic program.  The emphasis on Backfatin maternal gilts should be minimal.  Maternalgilts at 100 Kgs. should be around 12mm to 14mm at 100 Kgs.  Maternal gilts at breeding should be 14mm to16mm.  Maternal gilts at farrowing shouldbe 20mm to 24 mm.  Anything outside thisis acceptable but will require greater management.  I would tend to be fatter with maternal giltsthan leaner.  Backfat has a 40%hereditability and therefore a lean carcass should be focused on the Terminalsire rather than on the Maternal side. Backfat in maternal gilts is interdependent of backfat, age and weightof the maternal gilt.  Charts 1,2 and 3look at these three important interdependent factors.

母系后备猪应该执行严格的基因程式。不应该太过重视母系后备猪的背膘问题。100公斤的母系后备猪背膘厚度应该大约在12-14毫米左右。配种时的母系后备猪背膘应达到14-16毫米。分娩时的母系后备猪背膘要达到20-24毫米。如果实际情况超过这一范围也是可以接受的,但需要加强管理。就我个人而言,我更希望母系后备猪胖一些。背膘的可遗传性为40%,因此要想提高胴体瘦肉率应重点关注父系,而不是母系。母系后备猪的背膘同其日龄、体重息息相关。你可以通过表123更好地了解这三项要素的相关性。

Here is a chart that gives an idea of where the backfat (in Millimeters) in maternalgilts should range at farrowing.  At breeding shift the chart 4mm to the left.  Ideal at breeding from 16mm to 20mm.

下表展示了母系后备猪在分娩时背膘的理想范围(单位:毫米)。配种时则将该表数据整体左移4毫米。配种时理想背膘为16-20毫米。

Stop using back fat for milk duringlactation.  The modern sow has 30 % morepigs to wean and weaning 15% heavier piglets. Overall milk for this modern litter requires feed not back fat to getresults.

哺乳期停止依靠消耗背膘来产奶。同过去相比,当代母猪断奶仔猪数已增加了30%,断奶时仔猪体重整体增加了15%。现如今,母猪哺乳更依赖的是饲料,而不是背膘。

The second part of this is total bodymass.  Maternal gilts weight is also animportant part of this.  Weight inKilograms at breeding.

第二部分表示的是总体重。母系后备猪体重也是重要的一部分。配种时体重情况单位是公斤。

The third component is age.  Age in days from birth at breeding.

第三大要素是日龄。日龄为配种时已出生天数。

Here is a look at 5 purebred farms I followin China.  We want to focus on FarmG.  Where they are weaning 13 pigs persow over the last 10 weeks, (12.5 for all last 2 years), with all three breeds Yorkshire, Landrace andDuroc).  It in contrast to the otherfarms, farm G places a great deal of effort in Gilt develop and gilt udderdevelopment.  They focus on getting allthree components in developing the gilt. The gilt is given 14 pigs to milk. Because she has adequate backfat, age and weight she is able to milk forthe full term 14 pigs.  Management ofthis gilt is the simplest.  The pre-weanmortality is less than 5%.  Farm H andFarm G have differing strategies.  WhereFarm H puts more pigs on older sows and places less emphasis on giltdevelopment.  Remember your paritydistribution.  The largest group isalways your parity 1 sows.  Farm Gemphasis gilt udder development.  Thishas a great affect in subsequent parities and longevity in the herd.

下面是我在中国研究的5家纯种场相关情况。我们关注的重点是G场。过去10周,该场每头母猪可断奶13头仔猪,(过去两年都是12.5),大白、长白和杜洛克这三大品系都是如此。同其他场相比,G场在后备猪培育以及后备猪乳房发育方面下了很大功夫。他们在培育后备猪时重点关注这三大要素。有一头后备猪要为14头仔猪哺乳,因为她的背膘、日龄和体重都达标,允许在整个哺乳期哺乳14头仔猪。这头后备猪的管理是最简单的。断奶前死亡率不到5%H场和G场采用的方案截然不同。H场会让日龄较大的后备猪带更多仔猪,而对后备猪培育则不是很重视。要铭记胎次分布。1胎母猪的窝产子数是最高的。G场很重视后备猪乳房发育。这对猪群后续胎次和寿命都有很大影响。

Summary

总结

Backfat is very subjective.  There is a range of acceptable levels.  Some levels are more manageable thanothers.  Backfat in maternal gilts isinterdependent of age and weight.  Maternalgilts require a greater need for backfat management.  Managing Backfat, age and weight of the maternalgilt will help to maximize her ability to milk and have longevity in the herd.After parity 3 the range is much broader.  Look at farms with best results and adapt the best practices to yourfarm.  Rely on feed intake and nutrientlevels in lactation feed to get milk production.  Do not expect to get results from the sowsbackfat.  I don’t even measure backfatanymore but focus rather on feed intake.

背膘是一项非常主观的标尺,有一定的可接受范围。一些背膘水平下的母猪比其他猪更好管理。母系后备猪的背膘同日龄和体重有很大相关性。母系后备猪对背膘管理的需求更高。管理母系后备猪的背膘、日龄和体重有助于最大程度提高其哺乳能力以及延长在猪群中的寿命。三胎后范围更广。你可以学习成果最显著的猪场并在自己的猪场运用这些最佳实践方式。为保证产奶量,哺乳期间采食量和饲料营养水平是关键。不要指望母猪通过消耗背膘来产奶。我甚至已不再测量背膘,而是重点关注采食情况。

注:表内第一行:批次号。

第二行从左至右:栋舍、母猪数量、背膘低于18毫米母猪数量、背膘在18-24毫米之间母猪数量、背膘超过24毫米母猪数量

There is no such thing as fat sows anymorein hyper prolific sows.  Only 8.3% areover 24 mm BF.  45% are under 18mm.  These all fall in the manageable to difficultto manage range.  Only 56.7% areideal.  Natural variation is normal.

对于产子数超高的母猪,脂肪问题已不在考虑范畴内。只有8.3%的母猪背膘超过24毫米,而18毫米以下占比达到了45%。这些母猪全部在“可管理”到“难以管理”区间范围内。只有56.7%的母猪是理想的。自然变异情况正常。

Natural Variation:

自然变异:

Here isa look at 44 YY gilts in a herd that were Adjusted to 100 Kgs and the backfatwas Adjusted to that 100 Kgs weight.  At 100 Kgs they were from 127 to 139 days of age.  The natural variation of these gilts Back Fatwas from 8.2 mm to 16.9 mm.  These pigsbeing on full feed until they were taken off test and probed to get their truenatural body metabolism of Back Fat.  Noticethe wide range.  The same naturalvariation would be expected at breeding and at farrowing.  The average at 100 Kgs is 12.7 but note thewide variation from that average.  Youcannot use back fat as a true measure of a gilt as an average.  Unless you use its own off test Backfat todetermine where her breeding and farrowing Back fat will be.

下面我们看一下猪群中44YY后备猪的情况,它们体重调整为100公斤,而背膘也是按照100公斤体重调整的。这些猪在127-139天时达到了100公斤。这些后备猪的自然变异中,背膘范围是8.2-16.9毫米。这些猪在试验结束前一直是自由采食,试验人员检测了背膘真实的自然代谢情况。注意,区间范围很大。配种和分娩时的自然变异应该是一样的。100公斤层级上平均背膘是12.7毫米,但注意变异距离平均值范围较大。背膘不能作为按平均情况衡量后备猪的标尺,除非你使用未经检验的背膘来判断配种时和分娩时背膘预计值。

Backfat is just anumber, it doesn’t identify performance just the level of management to get herto perform.

背膘只是一个数字,不能用来判断猪只性能,只有相应水平的管理才可以影响猪只表现。



Alberta Technology Consultancy(Shanghai) Co. Ltd

Lorne and Vicki Tannas: Swine Production Specialists and Nucleus Support

作者:Lorne和Vicki Tannas:养猪专家为核心场提供专业支持



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